Participatory social research value opinions and thoughts of all people, therefore focus groups, depth interviews and participant observation tend to be more popular than structured interviews, questionnaires or simple observation. Businesses go through lengthy processes to recruit and hire qualified and suitable staff, but often the emphasis on caring about employees stops there. Further participatory research encourage active participation of the people that is researched and whom the project is going to assist. Voting can be done by the group members sticking voting dots to the answers they deem most important. The psychological vulnerability of the community increase if they feel victimised, fatalistic and dependent. All Rights Reserved. Today, international companies often mine for oil, coal, gas, uranium, rare earth elements, and fine metals in regions far from the big consumer markets and final users. But commonly, nuclear power is categorised separately from ‘renewables’. Instead rather focus on strengths and things that the group takes pride in and that can become the foundation to build from. - Duration: How long is the impact of the hazard felt? If not planned, sited, and built carefully, infrastructure can undermine its intended development benefits and have substantial environmental and social costs. Semi-structured interviews can be conducted by a team of 2 ' 4 people that follows the below listed steps. ' Identifying particulars of the individual / organisation that is planning to get involved in the community in order to influence risk reduction behaviour. - Continue the focus group discussion on the history of organisations; the activities undertaken in the community; how well they do their function; how good is their coordination; which organisations, groups or individuals are important in a time of disasters. ' The researcher assigns numbers to the observations and by counting or measuring the objects, the data is produced. rising HDI) Employment effects – sustained growth stimulates jobs and contributes to lower unemployment rates which is turn helps to reduce income inequality. ' Systems within the community: political; institutional; economical; environmental; social and developmental The decision needs to be made which aspect will be considered first, hazard or community. To review secondary data it must be collected first and this can be done Semi-structured Interviews: are informal and conversational discussions that uses at most a checklist of possible questions as a guide instead of a formal questionnaire. Principals of sustainability - What is the history of the organisation? Air Pollution: occurs when hazardous material and pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Action research will allow space to get an understanding of how the community perceives their reality as well as understanding the needs of the community. Historical Profile: is the result of information gathering about past experiences. Learn more . 2013: 90 - 92. Hazard analysis ' Involve a number of steps to follow. On the other side, misguided activity occur when outsiders assume to know the objective of the particular group of people or what their primary livelihood strategies are. The purpose of the walk is: - Continue discussion on how the household copes in times of stress. ' Let every person write / draw one major problem on a card and pin these to a wall The features of the hazard must be considered in order to select effective preparedness measures. ' Ask 'WHY'? According to the EUROSION study (Doody et al. The types of semi-structured interviews with their specific purpose are: i. Policies for the sustainable management of urban green areas are necessary. Participatory decision-making can be done in a group situation in the following manner: An open ended question is written down on a piece of paper and placed on the wall. be based on clean technologies, renewable energy, and circular material flows that will reduce waste and promote recycling of materials. Healthy oceans and seas can greatly contribute to inclusiveness and poverty reduction, and are essential for a more sustainable future for SIDS and coastal LDCs alike. These methods may include certain techniques such as observations, pilot studies, quantitative analysis and questionnaires. ' Long-term sustainability of a community will be negatively impacts by uninhibited spending of public / private funds. As a capacity assessment tool, a historical profile and time lines should give information on what people did previously to survive and cope with adverse events and how their coping mechanisms changed since. Estimate costs and benefits: resources are always limited, therefore establish the maximum output with the minimum input. - Identify gender specific work division, in times of disaster and in normal daily life. The Hazard assessment as in the above assessment matrix is: ii. The techniques focus on specific problems experienced by the community and then the research is used to bring about social change in order to improve the participating communities' quality of life. The blue economy has diverse components, including established traditional ocean industries such as fisheries, tourism, and maritime transport, but also new and emerging activities, such as offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities, and marine biotechnology and bioprospecting. This process acknowledge that even poor people can be creative and capable to be active partners in development. - Identify danger zones, evacuation sites, local resources that can be used during emergency periods, land use zones, etc. Civil Aviation Authorities of a country are also enforcing strict rules with regards to use and standards of aircraft in order to reduce aircraft accidents because the general dynamics of this mode of transport cause that there are little to no survivors in the case of an accident. Inventory of material resources: list of all the materials that can be used. - Key-informant interview: to gain special knowledge about a particular topic, this is usually a specialist or well experienced person in a particular field. - Ensure social and intergenerational equity - Get to know the household members, composition, age, gender, then ask questions about livelihood and coping strategies. Therefore damage that is caused in one place will affect sustainable livelihood someplace else on the globe because space is shared. In most cases the assessment matrix is a guideline to identify vulnerabilities through group discussions with community members and a hazard map can be used to visualize the elements at risk and the location of the most vulnerable people. The priority of sustainable development is to find an effective way to eliminate poverty and improving the quality of human life within the carrying capacity of supporting eco systems. The disadvantage is that data remains only second-hand and the review of numerous sources is very time-consuming. Areas subject to rapid urbanisation are most at risk of fires. - Warning Signs: Scientific and indigenous indicators that a hazard is likely to happen. Observations can be analysed afterwards. The mapping should be done by the community members, use the following steps: Community analysis ' work with the other agencies, the non-governmental organisations and citizen groups from the community to complete the analysis. Therefore the calendar have useful information of activities that record resource flows into, between and out of households in other words they can highlight exchange or trade agreements. It also hosts an invaluable biodiversity that forms complex ecosystems which are threatened by human activities such as agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture, shipping, urbanisation and tourism. - Make people aware of changes Cost estimation for coastal protection –summary of evidence . This tool can be used by a team that is involved in facilitating a community members meeting during the latter part of a situational analysis or a community risk assessment. availability of seasonal job opportunities. - Identify high-risk behaviour: To identify high-risk behaviour, one must determine which acts or omissions cause adverse incidents and disasters. From an environmental point of view, tourism is one of the forms of nature usage. - Questions should be asked to encourage the map making and answers must be put on the map. The essay first lays out a brief summary of ecotourism’s positive aims and the reasons why it has been considered a ‘magic bullet’ for sustainable development. ' Community development plan B. Therefore, problems arising from the sustainable development concept need to be carefully addressed to preserve the energy, water and environment resources for future generations. - Poverty - Forecasting and prediction of events The objectives must be clear, measurable and attainable. Such benefits are considerable when compared to the average incomes of coastal households; a survey conducted in July 2000 of four mangrove-dependent communities in two different coastal provinces of Thailand indicates that the average household income per village ranged from $2,606 to $6,623 per annum, and the overall incidence of poverty (corresponding to an annual income … Once you have received the verification code, you will be able to choose a new password for your account. Resources brought by external organisations disappear once the project is over. Nowadays, erosion predominates in the coastal zones around the world; that is, there are losses of beaches and cliffs. Transportation disasters carry great risk of injury or loss of life for people as well as damage or loss of property in various ways. Oceans and seas cover over two-thirds of Earth’s surface, contribute to poverty eradication by creating sustainable livelihoods and decent work, provide food and minerals, generate oxygen, absorb greenhouse gases and mitigate the impacts of climate change, determine weather patterns and temperatures, and serve as highways for seaborne international trade. At the same time, growing human and environmental pressures in coastal areas have significant impacts on coastal systems, requiring urgent attention in many coastal areas globally. Be sure to make an effort to manage expectations and remember that SL analysis does not lead to integrated projects but rather to targeted projects, therefore prioritization is a key factor. Poverty exacerbated by dwainding resources, degraded fisheries habitats andlack of alternative livelihoods; 3. Residents spend less time in traffic and more time at work and in their communities, thus increasing productivity. At its core it refers to the decoupling of socioeconomic development through oceans-related sectors and activities from environmental and ecosystems degradation. Pay attention to group dynamics Poverty is as a direct result of human actions and there are many reasons for the magnitude and extent of poverty in developing countries but a prominent factor that contribute to large-scale poverty is food shortage. Over time, erosion can cause cliff collapse - therefore the coastline needs to be managed. Greater awareness can also be pursued by internalising costs. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; Examples ofthese forces are listed below (paraphrased from Chua and White, 1988): 1. E.g. 3. Misunderstandings can also be cleared immediately. Absolute poverty is the situation where a household / person cannot afford the bare minimum to survive. Desertification is the inability of soil to foster or maintain human life. - When: Particular time of the year that can be more hazard prone, e.g. The main international airport of 26 of the world's 39 small island states is located on coastal land. Sustainability as part of coastal development is achieved at the intersection of the ecological, economic, and social spheres represented by the three components of sustainable development. Such pollution have been closely linked to certain illnesses that mainly affect the health of the surrounding communities. It is useful to create maps for both the area and the community levels in order to compare and illustrate how the area map show patterns of risks and capacities (which is useful in the planning policy or large-scale initiatives) and the community map gives more specific and detailed information needed to target those elements most at risk. - The people can then list the work they do against each of the sources of income (livelihood) by marking the months and duration, age and gender can also be added. Encourage both genders and all age groups to participate as this will give you a broader perspective. Three elements make a EWS: - Life histories is when individual informants give a detailed account of their life regarding a specific issue from a historic perspective 2013: 91. 2010. The Role of Ecosystem Services in Sustainable Development in the Context of Coastal Developing States in Sub-Saharan Africa 198 Participatory Research as a tool to analyse Sustainable Livelihoods This is determined by the willingness / ability of people to act on their own behalf as well as on various social factors. Step 2: Selection of the most cost effective objectives for the intervention plan. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in ... play a key role in determining the productivity and structure of the primary producing community in estuaries and coastal marine waters (Deegan et al., 2002; Smith, 2006) and by extension, the productivity and structure of higher trophic levels. Representing 10% of Early Warning Systems (EWS) can be seen as effective or accurate information given timely in order to give those at risk of disaster the opportunity to take action to reduce the risk and prepare for effective response or even to avoid the risk altogether. Knowledge of the available resources is key to being realistic about what the intervention program can accomplish. Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. without stripping the natural world of resources future generations would need. The objective is to empower those threatened by hazards to move timeously to appropriate action to reduce the possibility of personal injury, loss of life and damage to property or environment. addy3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7 = addy3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7 + 'tralac' + '.' + 'org'; 4. Definitions of sustainable development requires that the world is seen as a system that interlinks space and time. iii. - Value differences because diversity can then create strength rather than division. iv. Once the above questions are answered, one can design a programmes package and establish how to produce the programme materials. A community analysis and profile should include the following: Their strengths and weaknesses can make a significant difference to the ability to rebuild and improve their material base and social institutions. How such costs and benefits are defined, valued, and quantified will be critical to ensure … Quantitative data: is when things can be counted or measured and is associated with analytical research. Systems such as political, institutional, economic, environmental, social and developmental all can be functioning within the community to benefit the whole. Ask open ended questions This may reveal the conflict or differences within the community. Communities living and working close airports or an air travel route are more at risk for this type of disasters. To get to the effects of the problems, ask for the consequences of each problem. Once everyone agrees on the list, the group can discuss the following: The combination of different substances that is released into the air can result in acid rain which can be harmful. Participatory Assessment Methods When researching Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) it is important to not over-invest time and other resources at gathering information at the expense of the actual analysis and actions. How do they manage resources? - Does the organisation have a community development plan? Routes must traverse settlement areas, fields, rivers, woodlands and grazing. Real GNI per capita – helps to lift people out of extreme poverty and improve development outcomes (e.g. Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the path that we all must embrace. Incorrect planting and irrigation methods that are followed may prevent the soil from rehabilitating itself. Considered to be predictions of a hazard but not accurate with regard to the exact time and place of the hazard. EWS are further often generalized in time span warnings. - Strive to maintain and enhance quality of live - Processing of information and dissemination of warnings to authorities and population Community analysis and profiling is similar to the 'target market analysis' done by marketing professionals to determine the best way of communicating product information to the community. Erosion is a natural process which shapes cliffs. Select a person to lead the interview Soil Pollution: Rural communities often depend on the land for food. Shipping Disasters: The shipping industry have unique possibilities for disasters. Passive? - Preparedness: The degree of preparedness of the group. Powell suggested that through evaluation one should compare new data with the baseline data and evaluate the overall impact of the programme. Appreciative inquiry: Different groups often have different views on the importance of the different institutions, these perspectives can be explored in further discussions. As a side effect of environmental legislation development and increased costs of waste management, mining moved from developed countries to other regions. Determine the message content: the information content should be directed towards specific hazards, it should be positive in attitude and it should clearly identify the context of the hazard along with the desired behaviour. In the context of sustainable development it shares many of the benefits of many renewables, it is a low-carbon energy source, it has a very small environmental impact, similarities that are in sharp contrast to fossil fuels. Assist them to get started but let them draw the map by themselves. Therefore capacity building is not only about undertaking specific tasks but the wider impacts of aid interventions must be considered in the process. At this step legislation and environment changes may become separated from the efforts to change behaviour or to reduce risk. The benefits likely to result from greater incorporation of sustainability into EPA’s work include the following: Reduced compliance costs. A gender specific calendar would provide insight into gender-roles and divisions of labour. Determine the message time and place: Consider when the target audience will be most receptive to the message and then schedule the messages for maximum effect. It can be done by a team or individual researchers and community members can validate information. Life on Land. - What did the organisation contribute to the community so far? While the blue economy, both as a concept and in practice, is relevant to all countries, this paper focuses on SIDS and coastal LDCs. For example, participatory poverty analysis have shown that people's concerns stretch well beyond income. Revised 2013. The tools used for participatory assessment are also used in risk, vulnerability, capacity and livelihoods analysis. document.getElementById('cloak3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7').innerHTML = ''; Question 2 Sustainable development can be described as a balance that is found between economic vitality, ecological integrity and social equity. Indicators of standard of living and quality of life in the community: Employment; unemployment; number of children born in a year; number of teenage pregnancies; infant mortality; life expectancy; average monthly income per individual / household; family structure; level of literacy and educational level. Step 3: Design of the programme itself. Source: Essay UK - It helps to understand livelihood strategies, behaviour, decisions and perceptions of risk, capabilities and vulnerabilities of households from various socio-economic backgrounds. Make notes discreetly. Since it is anonymous no one would have to defend their answer or opinion. - Decide on how many households and which ones in particular you will interview. Oceans and their related resources are the fundamental base upon which the economies and culture of many SIDS and coastal LDCs are built, and they are also central to their delivery of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is not true. ' - Focus group discussion: discuss specific topics in detail with a smaller group of people who are particularly knowledgeable or interested in the topic. Since the attacks by terrorist in America in 2001, the safety and security at airports have become a growing concern globally. The “blue economy” concept seeks to promote economic growth, social inclusion, and preservation or improvement of livelihoods while at the same time ensuring environmental sustainability. i. The essay first lays out a brief summary of ecotourism’s positive aims and the reasons why it has been considered a ‘magic bullet’ for sustainable development. - Group interview: get community level information, access to a large body of information, not useful for sensitive issues All life forms ate reliant on clean fresh water for survival but some sources place an area / community / environment at risk of consuming contaminated water. The facilitator must be familiar in advance with the names or the organisations in the community. In spite of all its promises, the potential to develop a blue economy is limited by a series of challenges. 2004), the costs of reducing coastal risks are mainly supported by national or regional budgets in the North Sea countries and almost never by the developers or the owners of assets at risk. But people have different opinions regarding the understanding of sustainable development. Those impacts can involve cost escalations as soon as international agencies rush into a crisis, this can seriously undermine the capacity of local organisations. Monitor and make continuous refinements to the programme as needed during the implementation step. The supply of water to coastal industrial parks from seawater desalination plants was studied by Jia et al. 2 Replacing talent can cost more than retaining the employees you originally had. - Let them use arrows to indicate the use of resources to and from households … Tel +27 21 880 2010 Fax +27 21 880 2083, © 2020 TRALAC TRADE LAW CENTRE NPC, 2001/020251/08.

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